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    Richard de Burgh's principal manor was at Loughrea, where the castle which he built in 1236 became the chief seignorial seat of the lordship. In Earl Walter's time there were four carucates of demesne land at Toolooban near Dunsandle, and prior to 1333 even more, all arable land under the lord's plough. Richard had also a castle and manor at Meelick on the Shannon. This was in O'Madden's country, where the Irish chiefs seem always to have been friendly to the de Burghs. We also hear of the earl's castle at Portumna, where the ferry was valuable. Apart from the demesne-lands, the cantreds comprised in the present baronies of Loughrea, Leitrim, and Longford, and the district about the town of Galway, appear to have been granted to free tenants for rent service, or on minor tenures in comparatively small lots, and to have been strongly colonized. This was the territory which from about the middle of the fourteenth century became known as 'Clanrickard's country'.

    Goddard Henry Orpen (1920)

    Detail from Letts map of Ireland, 1883.
    Above: detail from Letts map of Ireland, 1883
    . Map © Cartography Associates, from the
    Rumsey Collection.

    Left: detail from satellite photo (click for larger version).

    Charon (MIT Project) 1989, James Coleman ©