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    DEFINITIONS
    Shortly after the English invasion, William de Burgo, and other Anglo-Norman leaders, led their forces into Connaught, and after fierce contests with the O'Conors and other chiefs, got possession of a considerable part of the country. From Richard, or Rickard de Burgo, a great part of the county of Galway got the name of Clanrickard, which comprised, according to Ware, the baronies of Clare, Dunkellin, Loughrea, Kiltartan, Athenry, and Leitrim. The de Burgos became the most powerful family in Connaught, and were its chief governors under the kings of England. They were styled lords of Connaught, and also became earls of Ulster; but on the death of William de Burgo, earl of Ulster, in the fourteenth century, and the marriage of his daughter, Elizabeth, to Lionel, duke of Clarence, son of King Edward III, his titles passed into the royal family of England...
    In the beginning of the fourteenth century the heads of the two principal branches of the Burkes took the Irish name of Mac William, and adopted the Irish language and customs. Sir William, or Ulick Burke, the progenitor of the earls of Clanrickard, had great possessions in Galway and Roscommon, and took the name Mac William Eighter.

    Michael O'Clery, translated by Owen Connellan, 1846
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    Detail from Lizars map of Ireland, 1831.
    Above: detail from Lizars map of Ireland, 1831
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    Map © Cartography Associates, from the Rumsey Collection.

    Left: detail from satellite photo (click for larger version).

    Charon (MIT Project) 1989, James Coleman ©